Endemic to the Pacific coast of Columbia, the Golden Poison Frog is currently considered to be most poisonous of all vertebrates. These frogs usually have a brightly colored body devoid of any dark spots. The size usually ranges from 5 centimeters. The frog has the ability to change colors if they sense any kind of danger. The presence of tiny adhesive disks in its toes helps them in climbing plants. Moreover the presence of a bone plate in the lower jaw gives the impression that the toad has a set of teeth, not observed in any other breeds of frogs. This frog is usually active during the day time and is available in three distinct colors, like, mint green yellow and orange.
This species of frog feeds on termites and beetles, easily found in the rainforest areas. This frog is also considered to be the most voracious eaters of all species. However, while in captivity, they are usually fed with crickets and larvae of other insects. An adult Golden frog can consume food items much larger in size than its own body.
The source of toxic in this frog is still unknown. Scientists have come to the conclusion that may be the frog assimilates plant poisons which are often carried by their prey. However, if this frog is raised in captivity, completely isolated from other insects in their native habitat, they never develop venom. But this is rare, as this frog can pose as a potential danger if not handled properly.
Probably because of its body color, this frog does not have any predators as such, except human beings and one particular breed of colubrid snake.
The breeding in golden poison frog is similar to that of poison dart frogs, with the female laying eggs on the ground. Once the eggs are fertilized, the male and the female both look after them until they are hatched. After hatching, the males transport the tadpoles to their permanent pools.
Recently, these animals have been put on the list of endangered species. It is because humans catching them and selling them off to the black market. They have been forced to vacate their habitat due to deforestation and land expansion.
Scientific experiments are still being carried out about the properties of the venom of this frog. It is considered to be a powerful pain killer and is being used worldwide. Uses such as anti-venoms for spider –bites and snake bites are still being carried out.